ESG Focus | Apr 26 2023
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This story was originally published on 18 April 2023. It has now been re-published after correcting the name and shareholders of the Australian Renewable Energy Hub.
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ESG Focus: Aust Hydrogen Projects Hang In The Balance
As the green hydrogen arms race accelerates and major powers introduce subsidies, what will be the future of Australia’s many multi-billion dollar green (and even blue) hydrogen projects?
-Relatively few green hydrogen projects kicking off globally
-Majors have billions of dollars of projects on the table
-Is Australia willing to step up to the green energy plate?
-Australian companies examine their options post US subsidies
-State by state rundown of major hydrogen projects
-State of hydrogen play among the ASX majors
-ASX-listed hydrogen small caps and minnows
By Sarah Mills
In Part 1 of this series, FNArena observed global non-grey hydrogen subsidies have dampened, if not dashed, Australia’s hopes of becoming a green, blue, turquoise or pink hydrogen superpower.
At the moment, there is not too much skin in the game, but Australia needs to decide whether it is willing and able to play, which is why 2023 is shaping up as a pivotal year for the industry.
Actual funds directed globally towards clean hydrogen to date have been very small relative to total global energy transition investments: US$1.1bn out of US$1.1trn in 2022, according to BloombergNEF. This is even less than garnered by carbon capture and storage.
But clean hydrogen was the fastest growing sector, investment tripling on the previous year. (Hydrogen's main competitor as a grid stabiliser, nuclear energy, was the only low-carbon solution not to register a sharp uptick).
BHP Group’s ((BHP)) Pathways To Decarbonisation report observes that all hydrogen’s (not just green hydrogen) share of final energy demand will sit at 6.5% of the total energy market by 2050.
BloombergNEF puts that figure at 24% in a strong policy environment – double any other estimate in BHP’s sample, in which the average was about 6.5%.
The Global Hydrogen Council observes that deployment of green hydrogen projects have been lagging, with only 10% of 680 large-scale hydrogen projects around the world reaching final investment decisions.
Meanwhile, Australia’s political and business leaders, from former Reserve Bank chief Guy de Belle to Fortescue Metals’ ((FMG)) and BHP’s chiefs Andrew Forrest and Mike Henry, are calling on the government to step up.
The ALP is expected to announce its intentions by year-end.
What’s A Few Billion Dollars Here And There
At first glance, the financial hurdle does not appear too high for the Australian government, especially given the recent $300bn AUKUS submarine deal (although the latter certainly makes it financially tougher for Australia as it enters the transition fray).
The IRA and Bipartisan Infrastructure Laws have allocated just over US$20bn out of a total US$370bn in energy funding over 10 years to clean hydrogen according to McKinsey.
Also, the powerful US pretty much took a shotgun approach with its Inflation Reduction Act, supporting nearly every green transition option.
Australia could adopt a more targeted and nuanced approach.
This would require a mammoth policy effort by the new Labor government, which (like its Liberal & Nationals predecessors) has yet to demonstrate leadership in this area. Nor does the government want to get caught dishing out subsidies to unviable projects.
But to fold now, so early in the transition game, and submit to being a critical minerals supplier only would reflect extremely poorly on the government domestically and geopolitically, so some kind of effort is expected.
This is not to mention the fact that the circularity, environmental and health imprimaturs will eventually undermine critical minerals export markets, leaving Australia high and dry.
The question on many lips is: has Australia’s government got what it takes?
We have touched on the problems associated with hydrogen storage and transportation in previous articles; as well as the lack of binding off-take agreements; the limited markets for green hydrogen given the costs versus renewables; the threat of innovation and Paris Accord technical pathways (which BHP’s website observes are “universally positioned on the cautious side of the green hydrogen debate”); and the falling costs of green hydrogen as the industry prepares to scale (UNSW believes green hydrogen could become cheaper than fossil fuels within a few years).
Meanwhile, according to Bloomberg, industry pundits including Fortescue Future Industries observe that green methane, produced by adding carbon dioxide to hydrogen, could be used to ship hydrogen in preference to ammonia or liquefied hydrogen, using existing gas infrastructure, although this option too is not without its challenges.
In this article we list the billions of dollars of hydrogen projects proposed by ASX-listed companies and global majors, some of which hang in the balance pending the Australian government’s response to global subsidies.
The IRA’s clean hydrogen definition includes upstream emissions, including methane leakage from natural gas pipelines, which suggest blue hydrogen won’t qualify for the highest PTC value, not even pyrolysis-based hydrogen, according to Utility Dive.
Australian Companies Examine Their Options
In summary, companies appear to be adopting one of three strategies.
Some are doubling down and attempting to bring forward timelines (profits in the hand can match development subsidies in terms of providing capital expenditure but requires patient shareholders in an era of rising rates, when capital is thin on the ground).
Others are retreating or reshuffling as best exemplified by well publicised issues with some of Fortescue Future Industries’ major projects, such as Sun Cable, and Macquarie Group’s ((MQG)) exit from its Port of Newcastle proposal. A common strategy has been to focus on establishing on-site production facilities in subsidised nations, or to decarbonise mining operations.
Those with few options are doing nothing, their main hope being some sign of government support and hydrogen tech innovators are likely to continue apace in a dry, less hydrogen-hyped capital market.
A reference article of sorts
This article focuses on the major Australian companies with onshore hydrogen plans but lists the bulk of smaller projects to round it out as a reference for Australian hydrogen projects.
The article includes blue, turquoise and green hydrogen projects, and some of the larger offshore investments in the sector.
Australia’s Global Green Hydrogen Prospect
PwC estimates companies have pledged more than $250bn to develop clean hydrogen in Australia and the CSIRO has identified a dozen or more advanced hydrogen projects.
Some of this investment is aimed at supplying domestic demand, but the bulk of green hydrogen is intended for export markets.
Prospective importers include Belgium, Germany, Japan, The Netherlands and South Korea.
Under EU standards, all green hydrogen must be powered by investment in new renewables, which means green hydrogen producers will not be able to cannibalise existing renewables resources.
This means all green hydrogen developments intended for European exports must be accompanied by investment in renewable infrastructure – emphasising the size of the renewables prospect.
Renew Economy’s interview with Rystad Energy's renewables analyst David Dixon concludes NSW is the state with the most potential to produce cheap green hydrogen, followed closely by Victoria and SA.
In terms of subsidies, the $15bn National Reconstruction Fund can provide cheap loans and investments to the industry.
Meanwhile, the 2019 national hydrogen strategy is under review.
Australian companies are also establishing operations in subsidised nations.
Global uptake will be critical to Australia’s green hydrogen hopes and that is a battle currently being waged between battery storage, nuclear energy and green hydrogen and will hinge on innovation.
Green hydrogen is cleaner than battery storage, which is one mark in its favour.
Major projects State By State
Here we list some of the major green hydrogen projects in each State and Territory.
-$50bn mooted Australian Renewable Energy Hub in WA’s Pilbara – major investors include BP and Macquarie (FID expected in 2025).
-$10bn-plus Murchison Renewable Energy Project in WA led by Copenhagen Infrastructure Partners (FID early 2025).
-8GW HyEnergy Project through Province Resources and France’s Total Eren.
-$150m Infinite Green Energy proposal at Arrowsmith near Perth. (IPO tipped for second half 2023).
-$87m Yuri Australian renewable hydrogen project in the Pilbara – Australia’s largest electroliser (with Mitsui, scheduled for completion in 2024).
-$100bn 50GW Western Green Energy Hub by InterContinental Energy (Final Investment date of 2028).
-Fortescue Future Industries holds land for a large renewable energy hub in Ashburton North.
-South Korea’s Posco (linking with Gina Rinehardt) has also secured land in the Boodarie SIA for its proposed hot briquetted iron (HBI) plant, which would use hydrogen to transform iron ore in direct reduced iron. Posco has pledged $40bn to Australian green hydrogen projects by 2040.
-Alinta Energy is also considering green hydrogen production after being awarded land in the Boodarie area.
-$14.8bn Central Queensland Renewable Hydrogen Project (FEED in early 2023. Completion scheduled for 2027).
-$4.7bn H2-Hub at Yarwun near Gladstone in Queensland, developed by The Hydrogen Utility (FID expected June 2023 for construction commencement in 2025).
-10GW North Queensland Super Hub near Gladstone owned by Windlab, in which FFI’s Squadron Energy, is a part owner.
-Up to $913m Gladstone electrolyser factory (first $116m stage is due for completion in 2023).
-$1bn green hydrogen equipment facility (Global Green Energy Manufacturing centre), including electrolysers (see above) solar photovoltaic cells, long-range electric cabling and wind turbines, at Aldoga, west of Gladstone (part of the hydrogen hub).
-Townsville Hydrogen Hub.
-All up more than 30 hydrogen projects are planned across Queensland.
-$3.5bn Project NEO in NSW (A decision was expected in the December quarter 2022).
-Hunter Hydrogen Hub
-$2bn Spencer Gulf hydrogen complex
-$593m Eyre Peninsula Gateway project in South Australia near Whyalla (this is being fast-tracked for completion in December 2025). As part of this the State plans to build Australia’s first 200MW green hydrogen power plant.
-1.25GW Hydrogen Park South Australia owned by BHP, Fortescue, Woodside, Anglo American, Macquarie Capital, Origin, Jemea Stanwell and Pacific Hydro, and Countrywide, Austrom and Hydrogen Renewables Australia.
-Plans to produce Australia’s first 200MW green hydrogen plant.
-$35bn Sun Cable project in Northern Territory (FID previously slated for 2024 prior to voluntary administration).
-Darwin H2Hub. It’s early days yet. Private dollar value commitments are thin on the ground but France’s Total Eren signed an MOU last year to support a 1GW electrolyser facility near Darwin. The government has allocated about $300m to the hub.
-10GW $15bn Desert Bloom Hydrogen project in the Barkly region, whim aims to use atmospheric water capture to produce green hydrogen. Aqua Aerem is the tech company behind the project, which is backed by Osaka Gas. (Under development: Stage 1 works were scheduled for 2022, and completion was set for 2023).
-Provaris energy’s Tiwi Islands green hydrogen export facility.
-$1.7bn hydrogen and methanol production facility by Iberdrola and Abel Energy (FID mid-2024).
-$464m Renewable energy regional program with a Green Hydrogen Hub mooted for Bell Bay. ($70m Australian Government Grant Deed is under way).
-Southern Tasmania Green Hydrogen Project in Brighton, north of Hobart – an electrolyser project led by ReNu Energy ((RNE)) and Countrywide Renewable Hydrogen (due to be online December quarter 2023).
-$100m Geelong Hydrogen Hub (an MOU has been signed with Fortescue Future Industries).
-The Melbourne Hydrogen Hub – relatively small in the overall scheme of things to supply hydrogen buses for the Victorian transit system.
Victoria has some green hydrogen projects but its larger projects appear to be focused on blue hydrogen through its Carbon Net program.
The world’s first pilot shipment of liquefied hydrogen (derived from brown coal or lignite) out of Victoria arrived in the Port of Kobe, on February 25, 2022, and was deemed to be successful by the companies involved. Further independent research and trials are pending.
ASX Majors Examining Their Options
We have listed the main green hydrogen pledges of ASX-listed majors, emphasising the majority of investment is yet to come.
Origin Energy ((ORG))
Origin Energy is closing its Eraring coal plant (to be replaced with a battery) while signing an agreement with Orica ((ORI)) to collaborate on a Hunter Valley Hydrogen hub led by Origin Energy Future Fuels to use a grid-connected electrolysis to produce green hydrogen for the industry’s heavy transport operators. Capital expenditure is estimated to cost -$750m-plus.
The precinct will involve installing Australia’s biggest private power network. It aims to support the production, storage, distribution and export of hydrogen as well as ammonia, sustainable aviation fuel and other fuels.
The hub is expected to increase the gross regional product of the Hunter by $4.2bn.
AGL Energy ((AGL))
AGL Energy has signed a memorandum of understanding with Fortescue Future Industries to explore the development of a green hydrogen and ammonia facility at the Liddelll and Bayswater power station sites, as part of its plans to develop the Hunter Energy Park at the Hunter Energy Hub.
The company is focusing on repurposing existing fossil fuel infrastructure.
AGL is also undertaking a feasibility study for a green hydrogen production facility at its Torrens Island site.
On the blue-hydrogen front, AGL is in consortium with Japanese majors and Dutch Shell.to ship liquid hydrogen from the Latrobe Valley in Victoria to Japan.
Fortescue Metals Group
Fortescue Metals has doubled down on its hydrogen energy ambitions, estimating the total addressable market to be 27m tonnes a year in the long term, believing it to be a strong energy security play.
Its subsidiary, Fortescue Future Industries (FFI) has announced 1000GW of renewable capacity around the world and to use most of that to manufacture green hydrogen.
FFI has pledged to spend -$1b on green hydrogen investments and has signed many memorandums of agreement globally, some of which we list here. FFI expects it will start making money by 2024 or 2025.
Fortescue Metals has dedicated 10% of its profit to transition projects generally and in FY22 spent a total of -$534m, including -$148m in capital expenditure and -$386m in operating expenditure.
FFI will use Fortescue Metals Group as a testing ground for new technologies as the parent company decarbonises and cuts costs in its iron-ore business.
As an example, Fortescue has committed to introducing green-hydrogen fuelled haulage into its supply chain (the first fleet of hydrogen fuel cell trains have started operating in Germany).
The company is active in most Australian states. One of its largest prospective investments involves the Super Hydrogen Hub in north Queensland aimed at decarbonising the Queensland grid.
Its electrolyser factory at the Green Energy Manufacturing Centre (GEM) in Gladstone is already under construction and is expected to start commercial production this year. It required an initial investment of -$116m and, if successful, may attract a further -$913m.
FFI has signed agreements with Airbus to explore development of a green hydrogen aircraft at the centre, and with Incitec Pivot ((IPL)) to test the feasibility of green ammonia at the latter’s Brisbane Gibson Island site.
FFI hopes to supply green hydrogen to the shipping industry and is exploring green iron production and green ammonia-powered submarines.
Fortescue Metals is not confining its green hydrogen ambitions to Australia. It has interests in continental Europe, North America, South America, Africa, Scandinavia and Asia.
Fortunately for shareholders in Fortescue, Andrew Forrest is not wedded to Australia and has advised the company will be expanding investments in the US and already has three proposals in the pipeline.
The company signed a critical agreement in Berlin in March with E.ON, Germany’s largest electricity supplier, under which FFI will supply the company with 5m tonnes per year of green hydrogen by 2030 – one third of Russia’s current energy provision.
Fortescue has signed a MOU with hydrogen truck contender Nikola to collaborate on green hydrogen production sites in the US, although Nikola has more recently been subject to several setbacks as did rival Hyzon during the recent tech wreck.
The pair plan to become Europe’s largest supplier and distributor of green hydrogen, providing a critical zero-carbon alternative to Russian energy.
The company said it had made serious breakthroughs in producing electrolysers but the statement was thin on details including related capital expenditure.
FFI is examining catalytic technologies that could bypass electrolysers. In this respect FFI chief Andrew Forrest is demonstrating the right mindset for disruption. He is happy to cannibalise existing investments such as electrolysers for more efficient ones.
Meanwhile, a brawl has broken out between Fortescue Metals and Seven Group’s ((SVW)) Kerry Stokes, Andrew Forrest accusing the latter of unfairly targeting Fortescue businesses and misusing the power of his media empire because of rivalry related to Stokes' Westrac heavy equipment business – which goes to show just how argy-bargy the whole arena is starting to become.
Woodside Energy ((WDS))
Second to Fortescue Metals, Woodside Energy is the most active major on the green hydrogen front, proposing domestic and offshore export scale hydrogen and ammonia production facilities. Its projects are also examining blue hydrogen options.
The proposed Australian facilities are located at Kwinana within the Rockingham industry zone south of Perth, called H2Perth; Bell Bay near Launceston and Davenport in Tasmania, called H2TAS;
The company also has a facility in Oklahoma, in the US, called H2OK, which is likely to attract a good deal of initial attraction given generous US subsidies. H2OK is a liquid hydrogen production facility using electrolysis and is targeting the heavy transport sector.
Woodside has also partnered with Meridian Energy on the development of one of the world’s largest green hydrogen projects in New Zealand, the Southern Green Hydrogen Project (see below), shouldering out FFI in the bidding process.
Final investment decisions for the H2 projects are expected in 2023. Production for the projects is expected to commence in 2024 (Australia) and 2025 (USA).
Hydrogen electrolysers at Kwinana will be used to to stablise the grid as the renewables generation grows as a percentage of power usage.
The project will re-use wastewater at the facility, requiring no impact on residential water supply and no need for seawater, which one would imagine would be critical given Perth is one of the driest capital cities in Australia.
The Dampier to Bunbury LNG pipeline is located 2km from the facility and reforming is projected to start in 2027 and cease by 2050.
Woodside’s blue-green hydrogen mix would appear to position Woodside as a contender for Morgan Stanley’s alpha-generating “rate-of-change transitioners” as discussed in a previous article (although Woodside is yet to put its money where its mouth is).
Meridian Energy ((MEZ))
Meridian Energy is planning one of the world’s largest green hydrogen projects in New Zealand, the Southern Green Hydrogen Project.
It aims to produce 500,000 tonnes of ammonia a year from the project using electrolysis from renewable energy.
The facility is expected to provide up to 40% of New Zealand’s dry year flexibility needs to the electricity sector (wet years are more than adequately serviced from the country’s hydropower assets).
The project has a three phase development and will support grid transition through electrolysis and natural gas reforming.
Rio Tinto ((RIO))
Rio Tinto has also notionally committed to the green hydrogen market for decarbonising.
The company has managed to attract a $500,000 grant to investigate renewable hydrogen in decarbonising alumina operations.
Rio Tinto is deploying electrolysers at Bell Bay in Tasmanian aluminium smelters and will probably do the same in Queensland.
It may also use clean hydrogen to partly decarbonise its alumina refinery at Yarwun, near Gladstone.
Rio Tinto also plans to invest -$600m into renewable energy projects in the Pilbara. Final Investment Decisions are expected in June.
The company is also in discussions with Fortescue Metals to collaborate on decarbonising mines and is considering co-piloting a green hydrogen project.
Rio Tinto has also partnered with Bill Gates' Breakthrough Ventures, Honeywell, Mitsubishi, Equinor, Cosan, Capricorn Partners, Energy Impact Partners and Prelude Ventures and Amazon, plus several sovereigns in a renewable hydrogen start-up called Electric Hydrogen (EH2).
The consortium is embarking on a US$198m Series B Funding round (so it’s early days yet) that plans to build plants based on EH2’s electrolyser technology at scale (100MW) in order to slash costs.
Macquarie Group ((MQG))
Macquarie Group’s reputation as a leading global transitioner is distinctive, so it is notable the group’s green hydrogen investments to date, as a percentage of its overall green investments, appear to be on the lean side.
Macquarie Group’s subsidiary Green Investment Group has conducted feasibility studies in and around the Hunter Valley. Its proposed Port of Newcastle electrolyser and ammonia project was canned in February, the company citing US IRA subsidies as a factor.
The Green Investment Group also has its foot in the Asian Renewable Energy Hub, partnering with BP, InterContinental Energy, CWP Global, and Macquarie Capital.
Many of Macquarie’s offshore clean hydrogen projects are focusing on decarbonisation and most of its green hydrogen focus has been offshore, and includes a 50:50 500MW green hydrogen JV with Dutch chemicals producer Nobian, called the Hydrogen Chemistry Company; a renewable hydrogen energy plant in Chetwynd, Canada; upgrading infrastructure for the UK’s gas distribution network, and Storegga’s Acorn blue-hydrogen project in Scotland.
The company has considerable renewables assets in the North Sea, which is mooted to be Europe’s green energy hub, and green hydrogen is likely to be part of that development.
Unlike Woodside Energy, which is examining both green and blue hydrogen options, Santos has only outlined blue hydrogen commitments.
BHP, like Santos, has limited its investment in green hydrogen and outlines its rationale on the company's website.
However, it is keeping its hand in the game through its Nickel West land commitment in Western Australia.
The Big Australian is also developing an electric smelting furnance using hydrogen to replace coking coal to turn iron ore into direct reduce iron in WA.
BHP, Anglo American, Fortescue Metals and Hatch also announced a couple of years ago they would collaborate to de-risk and accelerate the production of renewable hydrogen.
Incitec Pivot ((IPL))
Incitec Pivot is considering using Fortescue’s electrolysers and green hydrogen to make ammonia at its Gibson Island facility in Brisbane, after the sharp rise in the cost of natural gas made the plant non-economic.
Alinta Energy is considering producing green hydrogen at its gas-fired power station in Boodarie.
Wesfarmers subsidiary Coregas is involved in the Hydrogen Energy Supply Chain gasification plant in Latrobe Valley Victoria (blue hydrogen) and was involved in Australia’s first liquefied hydrogen shipment to Japan.
Worley spies long term potential for its business as the primary green hydrogen market attempts to scale up, and is being paid to help develop nascent hydrogen technologies.
Lycopodium ((LYC)) has also won contracts.
Bluescope Steel ((BSL))
Bluescope Steel is examining options to decarbonise its steelmaking options developing a Capillary Fed Electrolysis technology (CFE) in partnership with the University of Wollongong called HYSATA. It doesn’t expect green steel to be commercially viable until the 2030s.
In a recent interview (which we will cover in our green steel story to come), a spokesperson told FNArena that should other technologies prove themselves beforehand, the company would licence the technology.
Offshore majors in Australia
Several offshore giants are also investing in Australia’s green hydrogen industry.
BP is one of the biggest players, taking a 40.5% stake in the Australian Renewable Energy Hub. From 1 July 2022 BP became the AREH operator, subject to approvals. The other partner shareholders in AREH continue to be InterContinental Energy (26.4%), CWP Global (17.8%) and Macquarie Capital and Macquarie's Green Investment Group (15.3%).
ASX-Listed Green Hydrogen Babes
Here we list the plethora of Australian green hydrogen juniors and small caps. We go into detail for the larger projects but refer you to a previous article by Tim Boreham for the tech-stocks (see below).
ReNu Energy ((RNE))
ReNu Energy plans to be a leading developer of green hydrogen projects through its wholly owned subsidiary Countrywide Hydrogen.
The latter is developing four renewable hydrogen projects – two in Tasmania (Launceston and Brighton) and two in Victoria (Portland near Alcoa’s aluminium centre and Alinta Energy’s wind farms; and in the Melbourne Hydrogen Hub in the city’s northern suburbs).
Countrywide also has a hydrogen project in Karimun Indonesia, as part of a consortium with Anantara Energy and Quantum energy.
In relation to the Melbourne Energy hub, NSW-based ARCC has produced an all-Australian hydrogen fuel cell bus – the first self-sufficiently produced zero-emission vehicle of its type – which was set to hit the road in March.
Frontier Energy ((FHE))
Frontier Energy is developing its Bristol Springs Green Hydrogen Project, 120km from Perth in WA.
The project claims to be one of the lowest cost green hydrogen assets in Australia, thanks to its central location and existing major infrastructure, which the company says allows it to cut operating and capital costs relative to remote projects.
Frontier is collaborating with previously listed Waroona Energy to share resources for renewable energy production.
It also plans to build Australia’s first refuelling station in Central Perth.
Infinite Green Energy
Infinite Green Energy isn’t listed but we thought we’d mention it anyway. The company plans to establish a green hydrogen plant at Arrowsmith in WA at a cost of -$330m, with production expected to start in the September quarter.
The renewables-based operation uses site ground water and plans to use hydrogen-fuelled road tankers to take the fuel to end-users solar and wind.
Province Resources ((PRL))
The company plans HyEnergy, a renewable power facility and downstream hydrogen plant in WA’s Gascoyne region, partnering with France’s Total Eren and Provaris Energy. using latter’s shipping and supply-chain technology.
Provaris Energy ((PV1))
Formerly Global Energy Ventures, Provaris plans a 2.8GW export project in the Tiwi Islands off the Northern Territory through a fleet of 340tonne compressed hydrogen ships, with export slated for 2026.
Sparc Technologies ((SPN))
Sparc Technologies is collaborating with Fortescue Future Industries to develop a photocatalytic water splitting technology that uses the sun to convert water into hydrogen and oxygen.
ADX Energy ((ADX))
ADX Energy has projects in Austria, Romania and Italy that aim to use old oilfields for green hydrogen production and storage in the Vienna Basin and elsewhere.
Other small cap ASX-listed companies include:
Hazer Group ((HZR))
Iron Road Ltd ((IRD))
Pure Hydrogen Corporation ((PH2))
Environmental Clean Technologies ((ECT))
Hexagon Energy ((HXG)) (blue hydrogen)
Pilot Energy ((PGY)) (blue hydrogen)
QEM Ltd ((QEM)) (hybrid renewable project)
Eden Innovations ((EDN))
Lion Energy ((LIO))
Montem Resources ((MR1))
Pilot Energy ((PGY)) (blue hydrogen) in WA’s mid-West
SRJ Technologies ((SRJ))
Part 1 in this series on hydrogen was published on 14 April 2023: https://www.fnarena.com/index.php/2023/04/14/esg-focus-aust-green-hydrogen-hopes-hit/
Last last year, FNArena published a prior two-part series on hydrogen:
The aforementioned story by Tim Boreham: https://www.fnarena.com/index.php/2022/12/05/the-year-of-hydrogen/
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